News in brief: Circassian in Jordan, LSA letter to Obama

1. Circassian Language Maintenance In Jordan

After a century of fighting, the 1864 victory of Russia in the Russian-Circassian War meant annexation by a Christian nation in the Caucasus where many had converted to Islam several generations earlier. Over the next half of a century, between two and three million Circassians were either forced to leave or left voluntarily, resettling in nearby areas.

One of the areas where the Circassians settled is now known as Jordan, a country that gained independence in 1946. While the Circassians are today in danger of losing their language, classes are now available and an International Circassian Cultural Academy was established in 2010.

Read the report (with several videos) “Circassian language maintenance in Jordan: Self-identification, attitudes, policies and practices as indicators of minority language maintenance” by Ulle Rannut. Wikipedia and the Ethnologue treat Circassian as two languages, Adyghe (ady) and Kabardian (kbd).

2. The LSA urges signing of Executive Order on Native American Language Revitalization

On April 15, the Linguistic Society of America sent a letter to US President Obama urging him to sign the “Executive Order on Native American Language Revitalization.” The Order was drafted by Obama’s staff members in association with Native American representatives.

The purpose of the Order is to put into effect the “Native American Languages Act” (P.L. 102-524) and the “Esther Martinez Native American Languages Preservation Act of 2006” (P.L. 109-394). The Order reads, in part:

It is the policy of the federal government to revitalize, and protect the rights and freedom of Native Americans to use, practice, and develop Native American languages to ensure their survival. The federal government shall recognize Native American languages as irreplaceable and integral to the national character. Native languages fulfill a vital role in maintaining cultural traditions and values, family protocols, social cohesion, sacred knowledge, and spiritual continuity.

American residents can e-mail President Obama urging him to sign the Order at Contact the White House. Anyone can write him or telephone his office as noted on that page.

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5 Responses to “News in brief: Circassian in Jordan, LSA letter to Obama”

  1. News in brief: Circassian in Jordan, LSA letter to Obama – Ethnos Project Crisis Zone Says:

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  2. Yılmaz ÖZCAN Says:

    THE MESSAGE-6a

    “ADIGECE’NİN LATİN YAZISI” HAKKINDA…

    Bu kitapçıkta; Sayın Doğan ÖZDEN’in WERED-1 isimli CD’sindeki Adıgece türkü ve şarkıların “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı” ile yazılışları gösterilmiştir.
    “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı,” sadece kişisel bir çalışmanın sonucu ve ürünü değildir. O; Adıgece Dilbilimcileri’nin yüz yılı aşan bir zaman içerisinde peyderpey çalışarak beraberce (anonim olarak) ortaya çıkardıkları ve Adıgece’nin yazılarını yeterli olarak “okunuşlu ve kullanışlı” duruma getirebilen tek yazı sistemidir. Adıgece’nin yaşayabilmesi için; Adıgeler’in, “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı”nı, doğru olarak, gittikçe artan bir yoğunlukla kullanmaları gerekmektedir.
    Kitapçıkta kısaca açıklanan “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı”na bir göz atarsanız, kitapçıkta yazılan Adıgece türkü ve şarkıların yazılarını kolayca okuyabilirsiniz. WERED-1 CD’sindeki müzik parçalarına ve eğer dinleme şansınız olursa Değerli Sanatçı’nın kendisine eşlik edebilirsiniz! Gönlünüzün susuzluğunu böylece bir nebze de olsa giderebilmiş olursunuz! Sizin bildiğiniz ya da derlediğiniz başka Adıgece türkü ve şarkılar var ise, onları da Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı ile kolaylıkla yazabillirsiniz…
    Adıge Kültür Unsurları’nın kayıp olmadan önce derlenip “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı” ile Adıgece yazılarak ortaya konulmaları gerekmektedir…
    Adıgece’yi gerçekten sevenlerin, “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı”nı kullanarak Adıgece’ye sahip çıkacaklarını umuyorum. 26.05.2011

    Yılmaz ÖZCAN

    “ADIGHEBZEM YI LATYN TXIK’EM” CHH’AK’E…

    Mi txiqhalh ts’ig’uim, QUICHH’A Doqhan WERED-1 zy ts’e yi CDm yit Adighe weredxemre qhibzexemre Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’emk’e ya txik’exer g’ichiqhalheqhuas.
    “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er,” ts’ixu zaque quideeyim yi lejhiqha-am. Har; Adighebze C’eniqhalejhxem yilhesychem c’yqhu zeman pc’onde zek’elhh’awijhiw zedelajhexew zeqhuisew (anonymiw) witikuim g’iraqhah’aawe, Adighebzem yi txiqhaxer yiryquiw “yegeqhuaf’ere zeeh’aqhuaf’ere” g’aziqhaxhuif txik’e system zaques. Adighebzer psewifin chh’ak’e Adighexem; “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er,” zaxuew, g’uexu nexhibe g’axhu zi zeeh’ak’ek’e zeeth’an xueey g’oxhuir…
    Mi txiqhalhim k’ec’iwe g’ichi-ueta Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’em fixeplheme, txiqhalhim chitxa Adighe weredxemre qhibzexemre ya txiqhaxem tinciw feegefins. CDm ficheeda-uem habixem fadeejhuwifins! Wisag’uem feede-ueniw nasip fxuexhuime, fy guimre fy jhemre zec’iqhuiw fideejhuwifins! Fy guim yi psi xuel’aqhar, zi t’eg’u f’ek’a mixhuimy hapxuedew yivqhak’ifa xhuins! Fe nemic’ weredxer, qhibzexer fc’ewe chitime; haxery Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’emk’e tinciw ftxifins…
    Adighe Kuiltur Uinsurxer mig’uedij gyic’e zixueth’asijiw Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’emk’e Adighebzek’e ttxijiw witikuim g’ytlhh’an xueey g’oxhuir…
    Adighebzer pejiw f’iwe zilhaqhuxer, “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” zirah’aw Adighebzem zeey xuexhuijinuxew soguiqhar. 26.05.2011

    YEMUZ Yilmez

    (“Wisag’uem Deejhuwin!..” txiqhalhim ye-4-ne yi napers.)

    THE MESSAGE-6b

    İSİMLERİN YAZILIŞI:
    İsimler isim oluşturan ekler alırlarken, iki isim veya bir isimle bir sıfat ya da bir isimle bir fiil birleşerek birleşik kelime oluştururlarken ya da tamlamalar oluşurken; isim gövdelerinin ilk hecelerinde bir “ a ” harfi geliyorsa o harf “ e ” sesi ile okunur, eğer isim gövdelerinin ilk hecelerinde çift “ aa ” harfi geliyorsa o çift harf “ kısa a ” sesi ile okunur. Bu oluşumlar esnasında; isim gövdelerinin ilk hecelerinin o ünlü sesleri değişikliğe uğrasa da, harfleri değiştirilmeden yazılırlar. Özel isimler, fiil gövdesine ek ya da isim eklenerek oluşan isimler; sesleri nasıl çıkıyorsa öyle yazılırlar.

    TS’E TXIK’ER:
    Ts’exem ts’e g’aziqhaxhu k’epih’axer g’ichachtem, ts’yt’ ye zi ts’ere zi xuedaqhare ye zi ts’ere zi g’axhuiqhare zegueh’aw psalhe zeguetxer g’ichuixhuxem, psalhe zepic’axer g’ichuixhuxem; ya ts’e psalhepqxem ya pe maqilhxem zi “ a ” h’arf xetiw g’aag’uew chitime ha h’arfim “ e ” maqk’e doger, ya ts’e psalhepqxem ya pe maqilhxem “ aa ” h’arfyt’ xetiw g’aag’uew chitime ha h’arfyt’im “ a k’ec’ ” maqk’e doger. Ha psalhexer ye psalhe zepic’axer g’ichixhuxem; ya ts’e psalhepqxem ya pe maqilhxem ha ya maq uixer zeg’uek’xemy, habixem ya h’arfxer zedmixhuek’iw dotxir. Ts’e wineeyxer, g’axhuiqha psalhepqxem k’epih’a ye ts’e g’aagueh’aw g’axhu ts’exer; ya maqxer g’izeryk’xem xuedew dotxir.
    Örnekler / Chapxhaxer : xabzecxue, guawecxue, pasereey, malhxhaqhu, bzagyaqha, bajafe, tanachh’a, tanexhu, zawejh, g’aafejh, pxhuantec’e, c’alef’, tanalhxue, xadexek’, xade k’ih’, maxue k’ec’, g’aafe lhap’e, Adighebze, Abezexe, pselhek’e, pselhenibze.

    ADIGHEBZEM YI MAQ TABLOR

    (A). Maq uixer:
    (1). Maq ui zeecexer:
    ..a , ..aa , ..e , ..ee , ..i , ..o , ..u , ..uu , ..y .

    (2). Maq ui guek’xer:
    (a). Maq ui guek’ zaquexer:
    (I). Psalhexem ya pe maqxew g’ichig’uexem:
    a , aa , ee , i , o , uu , y .
    (II). Psalhexem xetxew ye ya kewix maqxew g’ichig’uexem:
    -a , -aa , -ee , -i , -o , -u , -uu , -y .
    (b). Maq ui guek’ zeguetxer:
    (I). Psalhexem ya pe maqxew g’ichig’uexem:
    ua , ue , uee , ui , uy .
    (II). Psalhexem xetxew ye ya kewix maqxew g’ichig’uexem:
    -ua , -ue , -uee , -ui , -uy .
    (B). Maq de-uxer:
    (1). Maq de-u xuytxer:
    b , c , ch , d , dz , f , g , gy , gu , gh , i , j , jh , k ,
    ky , ku , l , lh , m , n , p , q , qu , qh , qhu, r , s , t ,
    ts , v , w , x , xu , xh , xhu, y , z .
    (2). Maq de-u xuizaxer:
    c’ , f’ , g’ , g’u , h’ , k’ , l’ , p’ , q’ , q’u , t’ , ts’ .

    (“Wisag’uem Deejhuwin!..” txiqhalhim ye-22-ne yi napers.)

  3. Yılmaz ÖZCAN Says:

    THE MESSAGE-5a

    UETEK’E GUEREXER = BAZI TERİMLER = SOME TERMS
    maq uixer : ünlü sesler : vowels
    maq ui zeecexer : bağımlı ünlü sesler : dependent vowels
    maq ui guek’xer : ayrılan ünlü sesler : separated vowels
    maq de-uxer : ünsüz sesler : consonants
    maq de-u xuytxer : serbest ünsüz sesler : free consonants
    maq de-u xuizaxer: sıkılmış ünsüz sesler : pressed consonants
    h’arf : harf : letter of the alphabet
    naqhiche : işaret : mark
    yequa k’ec’ : tire : dash
    apostrof : apostrof : apostrophie
    maqilh : hece : syllable
    txilh : mektup : letter (for correspondence)
    txalhe : defter : notebook
    txiqha : yazı, metin : text
    txiqhalh (kyitap) : kitap : book
    jhiriwe : sedalı : voiced
    jhirimiwe : sedasız : voiceless
    g’axhuiqha : fiil, eylem : verb
    xuedaqha : sıfat : adjective
    pepih’a : önek : prefix
    k’epih’a : arka ek : suffix
    wineey : özel, özgü : special

    K’EPIH’A GUEREXEM YA TXIK’EXER

    1. Diyasporem; Adighebzem yi xhuiniqha k’epih’ar “ ..s ” maqk’e, yi mixhuini-qha k’epih’ar “ ..-am ” maqk’e, yi mixhuiniqha wipc’e k’epih’ary “ ..-a ” maqk’e chija-ar. Xekuim, ha k’epih’axer ha maqxemk’e jizi-axery chikueds. Diyasporem; ha k’epih’axer “ ..ch , ..qam , ..qa ” maqxemk’e jizi-a g’ichineja-am.
    Yichh’am g’ichi-ueta sebepxem chh’ak’e Adighebzem yi xhuiniqha k’epih’ar “ ..s ” h’arfimk’e, yi mixhuiniqha k’epih’ar “ ..-am ” guipimk’e, yi mixhuiniqha wipc’e k’epih’ary “ ..-a ” guipimk’e dotxir. Xhuiniqha k’epih’aw g’aag’ue “ ..s ” h’arfim, mac’ew qhuimiw g’yk’ “ ..ch ” maqk’ey deegefinus.
    2. Diyasporem; Adighebzem yi kuediqha k’epih’ar, Tirkuibzem yi “ ..ha ” maqim xuedew chija-ar. Xekuim; ha k’epih’ar, ha maqimk’e jizi-axery chi-as. Hawe Xekuim; kuediqha k’epih’ar, yi “ ..xe ” pasereey maqimk’e jizi-axer chikueds. Habi g’ynemic’ak’e; “ ..xe ” kuediqha k’epih’ar, Adighebzem yi diyalekytxem ya ze-ah’aqhus. “..xe ” guipir kuediqha k’epih’aw g’ichig’uem; habi, Tirkuibzem yi “..ha ” maqimk’ey deegefins. Hawe “..xe ” guipir kuediqha k’epih’a chimixhuim; habi, normaliw g’izeryk’ yi pasereey maqimk’e doger.
    Yichh’am g’ichi-ueta sebepxem chh’ak’e Adighebzem yi kuediqha k’epih’ar; yi yegek’er sit xuedewy yirireexhu, “..xe ” guipimk’e dotxir.

    (“Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” txiqhalhim ye-18-ne yi napers.)

    THE MESSAGE-5b

    “ c ” h’arfim:Yngyilyzibzem yi “ sh ” guipim,Tirkuibzem yi “ ş ” h’arfim ha bzexem cha-a ya zexuede maq de-uimk’e doger.
    “ g ” h’arfim: Maq de-u h’arfxem, maq ui qhuim h’arfxem ya pexem chytim ye psalhexem ya k’ewix h’arf g’ichixhuim; Tirkuibzem, Almanibzem zexuedew chy-a yi “ g qhuim ” maq de-uimk’e doger. Maq ui psiqhuexem ya pexem chytim; habi, Tirkuibzem, Almanibzem zexuedew chy-a yi “ g psiqhue ” maq de-uimk’e doger.
    Hawe “ gegu ” psalhemre habi g’iteexhuik’a psalhexemre ya maq ui psiqhuexem ya pexem yitiw g’aag’ue “ g ” h’arfim, “ dj ” h’arf zeguetim yi maqimk’ey deegefinus.
    GUILHITE: Diyalekyt guerexem “ g psiqhue ” maq chiziramih’awe habi yi p’ek’e “ dj ” maqir chizirah’ar. “ dj ” guipir h’arf zeguet g’ichixhuim, habi Iarapibzem yi DJUM harfim yi maq de-uimk’e doger.
    “ h ” h’arfim: Psalhem ye maqilhim yi pe maq de-uiw maq ui h’arfxem ya pexem chytim, zepimiwiw g’yk’ maq guipxer g’eeqhaxhuir. “ h ” h’arfim, Fransizibzemy hapxuede zi zeeh’ak’e chy-as.
    “ h ” h’arfir h’arf zeguetim xetiw “ c , g , j , l , q , x ” h’arfxem ya wijhxem g’ichiguetim; habi, zy wijhxem g’yt maq de-u h’arfxem ya maqxer zereeqhag’uek’iry neqhuec’ maq de-uxer g’eeqhaxhuir.
    “ i ” h’arfim: Maq ui niquexem ya wijhxem chytim ye maq ui zaquew maq de-uxem ya pexem ye ya wijhxem chytim, Tirkuibzem yi “ ı ” maq ui qhuim h’arfim yi maqimk’e doger. Maq ui psoxem ya pexem ye ya wijhxem chytim, Iarapibzem yi “AYIN” h’arfim yi maq de-uimk’e doger.
    “ k ” h’arfim: Maq de-u h’arfxem, maq ui qhuim h’arfxem ya pexem chytim ye psalhexem ya k’ewix h’arf g’ichixhuim; Tirkuibzem, Almanibzem zexuedew chy-a yi “k qhuim” maq de-uimk’e doger. Maq ui psiqhuexem ya pexem chytim; habi, Tirkuibzem, Almanibzem zexuedew chy-a yi “ k psiqhue ” maq de-uimk’e doger.
    GUILHITE: Diyalekyt guerexem “ k psiqhue ” maq chiziramih’awe habi yi p’ek’e “ ç ” maqir chizirah’ar. “ ç ” h’arfim Tirkuibzem chy-a yi maq de-uimk’e doger.
    “ q ” h’arfim: Iarapibzem yi “QAF” h’arfim yi maqimk’e doger.
    “ s ” h’arfim: Tirkuibzem chy-a yi maq de-uimk’e doger. Ne-qhuec’iw jit-ame, Iarapibzem yi “ SY ” h’arfim yi maqimk’e doger.

    (“Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” txiqhalhim ye-24-ne yi napers.)

    THE MESSAGE-5c

    (2). MAQ DE-U XUIZAXEM YA TXIK’EXER G’IZERIXHUXER:
    Maq de-u xuizaxer; ya h’arfxem ya wijhxem apostrof ( ’ ) nahicher g’iguetlhh’awe “ c’, f ’, g’, g’u , h’, k’, l’, p’, q’, q’u , t’, ts’ ” xuedexew dotxir. Apostrof naqhichem, zy wijh g’yt maq de-u h’arf zaquem yi maqir yeexuizir. Hawe apostrof naqhicher “ ts’ ” guipim yi wijhim chytim; habi, “ ts ” h’arf zeguetim yi maqir yeexuizir. Habi g’ynemic’ak’e apostrof naqhichem, Adighebzem h’arf zeguet chyxuiz-am.
    MAQ DE-U XUIZA H’ARFXEM YA MAQXER:
    “ f’, h’, p’, q’, t’, ts’ ” maqxer: “ f , h , p , q , t , ts ” maq de-u xuytxem ya maq de-u xuizaxers.
    “ c’ ” maqir: “ ch ” maq de-u xuytim yi maq de-u xuizars.
    “ g’ ” maqir: “ g ” h’arfim yi maq de-u qhuimim yi maq de-u xuizars. “ g’ ” guipir (habi yi maqir); g’axhuiqhar, jizi-am yi lheniquek’e qhazawe g’izerixhuir g’aziqhalhaqhu (g’azi-u) pepih’ars.
    “ k’ ” maqir: “ k ” h’arfim Tirkuibzem, Almanibzem chy-a yi maq de-u psiqhuem yi maq de-u xuizars. Hawe “ k’igu, nek’eguugu ” psalhexem ya “ k’ ” h’arf xuizaxem “ ç’ ” maq xuizamk’ey deegefinus.
    “ l’ ” maqir: “ lh ” guipim yi maq de-u xuytim yi maq de-u xui-zars.
    “ g’u , q’u ” maqxer: “ g’ , q’ ” maq de-u xuizaxem “ u maq ui nique ” za-a ya maqxers.
    (3). H’ARF ZEGUETXEM ZEK’ELHIPITIW MAQ CHH’AXUEXEW G’AAG’UE YA H’ARFXEM YA TXIK’EXER:
    H’arf zeguetxem ya h’arfxer zek’elhipitiw, hawe zeguemih’aw maq chh’axuexew g’ichig’uexem; ha h’arfxem ya zexuakuxem yequa k’ec’ ( – ) naqhiche detlhh’awe dotxir. Yequa k’ec’ naqhichem, zy yaku det h’arfxem ya maqxer zepec’eexir.
    Chapxha: Jigh xet-senus (xesen). Cer d-zas (zin). Pqor yit-sas (yisen).Yi xadem jigh xuyt-sens (xuysen). L’ir xadem yit-s (yitin). Yinal-H’able, Quinac-H’able.
    C. ADIGHEBZEM YI “ZERIXHU-C’IK’E” PSALHEXEM YA TXIK’EXER:
    Adighebzem yi “zerixhu-c’ik’e” psalhexer; maq txik’exem ya chapxhaxew g’ah’aa psalhexem yaxet “zerixhu-c’ik’e (=gerundium)” g’axhu psalhexer zeritxaxem xuedexew txin xueeys.

    (“Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” txiqhalhim ye-27-ne yi napers.)

  4. Yılmaz ÖZCAN Says:

    THE MESSAGE-1a

    Değerli Adıge İnsanı,

    Sizi selamlıyorum!
    Adıgeler Adıgece’ye sahip çıkmamız gerektiğini düşündüğüm için, “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı”nı açıklayan ilişikteki yazıları dikkatinize sunuyorum.
    Çok sayıdaki Adıgece Dilbilimci’nin yüz yılı aşan bir zaman boyunca üzerinde çalıştığı “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı,” oluşumunu tamamlayarak ortaya çıkmıştır. “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı;” Adıgece’nin yazılarını yeterli olarak “okunuşlu ve kullanışlı” duruma getirebilen tek yazı sistemidir. Adıgece’nin yaşayabilmesi için; Adıgeler, “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı”nı, doğru olarak, gittikçe artan bir yoğunlukla kullanmamız gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle; “Adıgece’nin Latin Yazısı”nı kısaca açıklayan ilişikteki yazıları inceleyeceğinizi, beraber yaşadığınız Adıgeler’e o yazıların CD’lerini ulaştırarak, uzaklarda yaşayan bildiğiniz Adıgeler’e ise o yazıları internetle ileterek onların da görmelerini sağlayacağınızı umuyorum.
    Size sağlık ve esenlikler temenni ederim. 26.05.2011

    Yılmaz ÖZCAN

    EKİ:
    “Adıgece’in Latin Yazısı”nı açıklayan yazılar

    ADRES:
    Boğaziçi Konutları A-4 Blok D. No.: 1 / K. MARAŞ – TURKEY

    THE MESSAGE-1b

    Adighe Ts’ixu Lhap’e,

    Selam fizoxir!
    Adighexer Adighebzem zeey dixuexhuijin xueeyiw zerislhitem chh’ak’e, “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” g’azi-uate nic’iqhu txiqha t’eg’uir nifxuizoqhah’ir.
    Adighebze C’eniqhalejh kuedir ziteelejhih’aa “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er,” yi g’axhuiniqhar yiryquiry witikuim g’yh’aas. “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er;” Adighebzem yi txiqhaxer yiryquiw “yegeqhuaf’ere zeeh’aqhuaf’ere” g’aziqhaxhuif txik’e system zaques. Adighebzer psewifin chh’ak’e; Adighexem, “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er,” zaxuew, g’uexu nexhibe g’axhu zi zeeh’ak’ek’e zeeth’an xueey g’oxhuir. Habi chh’ak’e; “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” k’ec’iwe g’azi-uate nic’iqhu txiqhaxem fixeplhenu, fizidepsew Adighexem ha txiqhaxem ya CDxer yalhevqha-asiw, jijexem chipsew fts’ixu Adighexemy ha txiqhaxer ynternetk’e yaxuinevqhasiw, haxery ha txiqhaxem xevqhaplhenu soguiqhar…
    “Th’am, wizincaqhare f’iqhare guif’eqhuere g’ivyt!” jis-awe selam fizoxijir.
    26.05.2011

    YEMUZ Yilmez

    PIC’AR:
    “Adighebzem yi Latyn Txik’er” g’azi-uate txiqhaxer.

    ADRESIR:
    Yılmaz ÖZCAN
    Boğaziçi Konutları A-4 Blok D. No.: 1 / K. MARAŞ – TURKEY

  5. Yılmaz Özcan Says:

    CIRCASSIAN WRITING

    THE FORMATION OF THE WRITING OF CIRCASSIAN

    1. The dependent vowels are written with “ a , aa , e , ee , i , o , u , uu ,
    y ” letters.
    2. The short “ a ” which comes after the “ g’, h, h’, q, q’, qh, xh ”
    consonants is written with “ a ” letter and the long “ a ” is written with
    “ aa ” letter. The short “ e ” which comes after the other consonants is
    written with “ e ” letter and the long “ a ” which comes after the other
    consonants is written with “ a ” letter.
    3. The front and long “ e ” sound is always written with “ ee ” letter.
    4. The “ i ” letter which comes before or after the consonants or
    comes after semi-vowels as the only vowel is read like back “ ı ” vowel
    in Turkish. But the vowel “ i ” which comes after he consonant “ y ” is
    pronounced thinner and shorter.
    5. The “ o ” letter is pronounced long.
    6. The semi-vowel “ u ” which comes after the “ g, g’, k, q, q’, qh, x, xh ”
    consonants is written with “ u ” letter and the long “ u ” is written with
    “ uu ” letter. The long “ u ” which comes after the other consonants is
    written with “ u ” letter.
    7. The front “ i ” sound which comes after “ g, k, u ” letters or comes
    before or after the other consonants as the only vowel is written with
    “ y ” letter.
    8. In “ yy ”; the front “ y ” shows the vowel, the next “ y ” shows the
    consonant.
    9. The separated vowels which is at the beginning of the word are
    written with “ a ,aa , ee , i , o , uu , y ” letters. The separated vowels
    which are uttered separately from the former sound are written with a
    dash ( – ) in front of then. The“ -aa, -ee, -o, -uu, -y ” are long, “ -a, -i ”
    are short. “ -u ” is pronounced like semi-vowel.
    10. The separated diphtongs which is at the beginning of the word are
    written with “ ua , ue , uee , ui , uy ” united letters. The diphtongs which
    are uttered separately from the former sound are written with a dash ( – )
    in front of then. The “ –ua, -uee,-uy ” are long, “ -ue, -ui ” are short.
    11. Some of the free consonants are written with as the letters of simple
    consonants. Some of them are written as the letters of united consonants.
    12. The “ g ” letter which comes before “ e, ee, y ” letters is read like
    “ g ”consonant in Turkish. The “ k ” letter which comes before “ e, ee,
    y ” letters is read like “ k ” consonant in Turkish. The vowel sound of
    “ y ” letter which comes as abone is not uttered.
    13. The “ h ” letter which comes before the vowels as single forms the
    voice groups in a trice.
    14. The “ i ” letter which comes before or after the vowels is read like
    the consonant of “AYIN” letter in Arabic.
    15. The “ y ” consonant which doesn’t comes after “ g, k, u ” but before
    or after the vowels is written with “ y ” letter.
    16. Pressed consonants are written by putting “ ’ ” apostrophie behind
    then. Apostrophie on “ g’ ” presses the back consonant of “ g ” letter,
    apostrophie on “ k’ ”presses the front consonant of “ k ” letter.
    17. When the united consonants come separately, a dash ( – ) is put
    between the letters while writing.
    18. The gerunds in Circassian are written as the given sample gerunds.

    PS: The “ u ” letter in Circassian is pronounced as “ oo ” in English.

    . – 1 – 06.03.2014 – Yılmaz Özcan

    THE WRITING OF CIRCASSIAN SOUNDS
    (KABARDIAN DIALECT)

    SOUND /
    WORD MEANING
    ..a (dependent short-vowel or dependent long-vowel)
    g’ah’ bring (short a)
    dame wing (long a)
    ..aa (dependent long-vowel)
    g’aah’ they’re bringing
    g’aag’ue come
    a (separated short-vowel)
    ane variety of table
    ade pliers
    yiy-am s/he hasn’t get
    jit-at we were saying
    aa (separated long-vowel)
    aax they’re taking from him
    yi-aa-am s/he never had
    jit-aat we’d told
    b
    nibe obdomen
    c
    cate sour cream
    ch
    chabe soft
    c’
    c’e new
    d
    dane silk
    dz
    dzin to throw
    ..e (dependent short-vowel)
    mel sheep
    yege read; call
    ..ee (dependent long-vowel)
    teepcheky plate
    yeegy she’s spinning wool
    ee (separated long-vowel)
    eey bad
    eex he’s taking from him
    g’i-eex he’s taking from him
    s-eex he’s taking from me
    f
    fe you; skin, leather
    f ’
    f ’i good
    g
    gaz gas
    gok’ s/he’s leaving from him
    gerc bean
    gegu play (semi-vowel u)
    gy
    gyane shirt
    gyide axe
    yagy they’re spinning wool (semi-vowel y)
    gu
    guawe mourning
    guiven to be late
    degu deal (semi-vowel u)

    – 2 – (1/2 left

    SOUND /
    WORD MEANING
    g’
    g’achten to take
    g’aag’ue come
    g’eege read; call
    g’oplhe s/he’s looking at here
    g’oh’a s/he’s appearing
    g’u
    yeg’u suitable (semi-vowel u)
    gh
    jigh tree
    h
    hane mother
    hade father
    h’
    h’a dog
    ..i (as dependent short-vowel)
    ci horse
    zi one
    i (separated short-vowel)
    iqhin to hold (as vowel)
    yi-iqhir the thing s/he holds
    t-ix take it from us
    acri-i Noah’s pudding
    i (as consonant)
    ialemet strange
    maine meaning
    j
    baje fox
    jh
    jhi old
    k
    karton cardboard
    kontrol control
    ket sheep-fold
    kezuwe in turns
    ky
    kyar the thing cracked
    kyits’ kid
    yaky they’re stepping
    yeeky he’s stepping (semi-vowel y)
    ku
    maxueku thursday (semi-vowel u)
    k’
    k’ape tail
    nek’eguugu stye
    l
    li meat
    lh
    lhec’in to wipe
    l’
    pl’i four
    m
    maze moon
    n
    ne eye
    ..o (dependent long-vowel)
    bo stable
    nobe today

    – 2 – (1/2 right)

    SOUND /
    WORD MEANING
    o (separated long-vowel)
    o sheepfold
    one it’s hanging
    ze-one they’re hanging each other
    ze-oh’a things are going bad
    p
    pe nose
    p’
    p’e place; bed
    yip-’a? isn’t he feeding
    q
    qaabze clean
    g’aqeeyin to burp
    qoplhe he’s looking back
    qoh’a he’s going behin
    qu
    mequ hay (semi-vowel u)
    q
    q’a graveyard
    q’u
    q’ueey cheese
    q’uih’ ship
    qh
    qha year
    qhaatxe spring
    qheeyin to cry
    qhogu road (semi-vowel u)
    qhu
    meqhu is drying (semi-vowel u)
    r
    weram street
    s
    se I; knife
    wines house
    t
    tane heifer
    t’
    nat’e forehead
    g’yt’-am he isn’t digging
    ts
    tsi wool
    ts’
    ts’e name; louse
    ..u (dependent long-vowel or dependent semi-vowel)
    bzu bird (long u)
    duneey world (long u)
    ..uu (dependent long-vowel)
    kuu deep
    guu bull
    -u (separated semi-vowel)
    xee-u he’s dipping it
    c’i-uxer buttons

    – 3 – (1/2 left)

    SOUND /
    WORD MEANING
    uu (separated long-vowel)
    uuwin howl
    g’a-uuwin howl
    ua (separated long-diphtong)
    uax they’re opening
    so-uate I’m explaining
    ue (separated short-diphtong)
    ueten to explain
    p-ueten? will you explain?
    uee (separated long-diphtong)
    ueexu he’s driving away
    s-ueex s/he is taking in front of me
    ui (separated short-diphtong)
    uix open; take it away
    g’i-uik’ go away this side
    uy (separated long-diphtong)
    uyxir taken away
    s-uyxir the thing taken from me
    v
    nive stone
    w
    wade hammer
    x
    xade garden
    xu
    txuog’ue he’s going for us
    nexu daylight
    xh
    pxha wood; wooden
    xheeyin to move
    xhu
    pxhui daughter
    ..y (as dependent long-vowel or as dependent semi-vowel)
    sy my
    g’yk’ get out of this
    y (separated long-vowel)
    yt’ two hands
    yxar the thing he’s taken from him
    g’i-yxar the thing he’s taken from him
    s-yxt he was taking from me
    y (as consonant)
    yatx they’re writing
    yege read; call
    yeegy s/he’s spinning wool
    yin big
    k’yyin to shout
    yoge s/he is reading
    z
    ze once
    nez coast

    – 3 – (1/2 right)

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